The Birth of a City
Although no sign of it remains today, the Romans established a fort where the Castle Keep now stands called Pons Aelius.
The settlement survived after the Romans departed in the 5th century and later became known as Monkchester because of the settlement of monks. The name Newcastle came into existence during Norman times when William the Conqueror's eldest son Robert Curthose built a 'New Castle' on the earlier site of Pons Aelius and the name has remained ever since.
The Town Wall
Built in the 13th century to protect the expanding town from cross-border raiders, Newcastle's Town Wall was an impressive structure. It was approx 3km/2miles long, up to 2m/7ft thick and approx 7.6m/25ft high. It enclosed the Castle and its Black Gate as well as the main commercial district along the quayside and all the ground northwards to St. Andrews Church.
For more info on Medieval Newcastle Town Walls & Castle Keep, see 'Around the Town Walls' circular walks leaflet.